밤알바 time in the era of COVID-19 is Again, less formal education appears to make workers more vulnerable to recession, and this seems to be related to the type of work that people with less formal education usually work in. About two-thirds of part-time jobs pay wages that put them below the income tax threshold, and about 40% of part-time jobs pay wages below the threshold that allows employers to pay employee contributions. National Insurance (according to the UK Labor Force Survey). Part-time work, for economic or non-economic reasons, generally does not provide the same wages and benefits as full-time employment43. than comparable full-time positions.
Holiday plans may unintentionally favor full-time employees over part-time employees, which may be due to the requirement that employees be on the payroll at the beginning of the pandemic (part-time employee days, usually working less than full-time employees). Temporary workers). Among those who are unable to work because their employers have closed or lost their business due to the pandemic, the probability of getting paid for unused time varies depending on the employment status at the time of the survey. In July it was reported that 13% of those who were unable to work at some point in the past 4 weeks due to business closures due to a pandemic or business interruption received at least part of their employer’s wages during their unused time… …
The likelihood that people who usually work part-time will not be able to work due to the pandemic is about twice that of people who work full-time – 21% versus 10% in July. For workers unable to work due to the pandemic, those who typically work part-time are much less likely than full-time workers to report that their employer pays them for hours they do not work. More than half of people who were unable to work at some point in the past 4 weeks due to their employer closing or losing their business due to the coronavirus pandemic were employed at the time of the interview. Of the 31.3 million people unable to work due to a pandemic closure or business cutbacks, 17.1 million (55%) were employed at the time of the July survey.
The graph shows that since the first quarter of 2020, when the pandemic began, the number of people working full-time has increased by about 100,000, while the number of people working part-time has decreased by about 800,000. During the pandemic, people working full-time are better able to avoid losing their jobs than part-time workers. But younger workers are losing part-time and full-time jobs, in part because they tend to be in different jobs. Full-time employment of younger workers actually fell as underemployment decreased, but this was offset by an increase in full-time employment of older workers.
It is true that most young people in employment combine work with full-time study, but workers under the age of 25 make up about 17% of all part-time jobs. Part-time work for young people is dominated by sales and basic manual labor, in contrast to older workers, where there is a much wider range of part-time jobs. Even in good economic times, the proportion of graduates who do not require an advanced degree is high. For example, in 2000, when jobs were plentiful and the overall unemployment rate was 4.0%, 38.3% of employed graduates aged 22-27 worked in positions that did not require an advanced degree (Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 2020).
Among working adults with lower or lower educational attainment who say they can do their job from home, 60% say they would like to work from home all or most of the time after a pandemic, compared with half of those who do. would be an advanced degree. Among working adults who have not changed jobs since the start of the pandemic, four in ten who work from home all or most of the time say they have more flexibility in working hours than they did before the coronavirus outbreak. Among workers who do the same jobs as they did before the pandemic and who currently work from home all or most of the time, those with at least a college degree are more likely than those with a college or more. low education will say that they now have more flexibility in the choice of working hours (46% versus 28%, respectively) and less connection with their colleagues (62% versus 45%). Workers with low levels of education are less likely to work in positions that enable teleworking and are less likely to have sufficient digital skills to take advantage of such mechanisms when they are available (Dingel and Neiman, 2020; Fana etA al. , 2020; Sostero et al., 2020).
In the United States, people without a college degree are 1.3 times more likely to change jobs than people with a college education, and black and Hispanic workers are 1.1 times more likely to change jobs than people with a college education. workers. In France, Germany and Spain, the increase in the number of required job shifts due to trends impacted by COVID-19 is 3.9 times higher for women than for men. The most disadvantaged workers may face the largest job changes, in part due to their disproportionate employment in the areas most affected by COVID-19. Add to that the set of jobs that young people fill, and we can better understand why this economic downturn has hit young workers the hardest.
As with the unemployment rate, this year and in the past, the underemployment rate of younger workers was much higher than that of older workers, as shown in Figure B. ) work. – Are working, but want and are ready to work full-time (“forced” part-time), or want and are ready to work and have been looking for work for the past year, but have stopped actively searching for work in the past four years work week (“permanent” worker). They tend to have higher unemployment and underemployment rates than older workers; tend to work in industries and professions that have lost the most jobs due to COVID-19 shutdowns; and they are less likely to work from home. Part-time workers are also less likely to receive any form of paid leave: Only 41% received paid sick leave in 2019, and only 8% received paid family leave 44E, which is even more important in a public health setting. Part-time first responders are far less likely to get health care because of their jobs; only 22% did so in 2019. 45 Women affected in the short term will also feel the long-term impact on their retirement benefits. Working mothers, especially black mothers, already spend significantly more time than fathers on unpaid housework and childcare, even on the days when they also work for pay. their children, which may make it difficult for them to return to paid work in the future.